Tag Archives: data historian

What is the OSIsoft PI System?

The OSIsoft PI System

In the last two blog posts, I spoke about Industry 4.0 and the challenges around working with industrial sensor data. Let me attempt to quickyl summarize the outlined problems: Industry 4.0 initiatives require a ton of time-series data. Acquiring, managing and analyzing this can be extremely challenging.

This is where the OSIsoft PI System comes into play. It’s been around for almost 35 years and has helped thousands of operations & IT professional manage their industrial sensor data. Today, I want to provide a high-level overview of PI for those people who are new to Industry 4.0 and the sensor data analytics space. (Please take a few minutes to read the prior blog post for a description of the basic business problems).

It’s a data jungle

As discussed in the last blog entry, most organizations have massive struggles with capturing and managing data from their assets. If you happen to work in such an environment, you will know this scene:

System Architecture

Spaghetti diagram galore: how does the sensor data get to people and applications?

The OSIsoft PI System is all about simplifying this picture. It takes care of the full process for acquiring, archiving, managing and analyzing massive amounts of sensor data. Think of the PI System as a tool that takes care of getting data from the sensors to the users and applications that need it. This is basically a three step process:

The OSIsoft PI System

Data capture/ Collect

It starts with collecting data. As outlined before, this can be quite difficult. The PI System therefore offers a library of 450+ interfaces for virtually any kind of industrial communication standard or specific assets. There is no custom coding and no sherlock-holmesing of ancient APIs. This not only saves a tremendous amount of time but also significantly lowers risk (bad data, etc.). Further, the interfaces are smart: there is essential stuff like data buffering, filtering of bad data, etc.. along with auto-discovery of data sources. This ensures clean and reliable data.

PI Interfaces

Got an old asset? No need to worry about custom coding. There are 450+ standard PI interfaces.

Arrival in the OSIsoft PI System

Once the data has been collected, it needs to be stored & prepared for analysis. This is a big job that most databases are not made for. Keep in mind: Industrial sensor data is fast. 1-100hz data are not unusual and asset operators require timely information (i.e. NOW). The PI System stores the data immediately upon arrival and provides it to the users or applications in real-time. Yes, it’s a real-time system and that’s why you see PI in so many control centers around the globe. OSIsoft PI SystemBut just providing data in real-time would not be enough to satisfy the requirements of Industry 4.0. The PI System therefore does some really cool stuff such as calculations (simple KPIs and very complex mathematical formulas), unit of measure conversions, tagging of events, sending notifications etc…..

In case you want to perform historical analysis, you can also query data from 10-20 years ago in mere seconds. All data is hot and available – no more complicated archiving and waiting. This is cool stuff – think about the massive data volumes that we are dealing with here. The OSIsoft PI System does all this without any complaints – it is optimized to provide industry strength performance and reliability.

sensor data volumes

Data volumes in the industry can be massive. Source: OSIsoft

Context

How do you want to make sense of this much data? Keep in mind that sensor stream naming conventions are weird and funky (e.g. TI37.109-CP-TK9PV). A white paper by OSIsoft sums up this problem:

Typically, only a few initial users responsible for control system naming convention can fully benefit from the value built into the semantic namespace. Others spend valuable time trying to find and integrate the “right” operational data for analysis, roll ups. As a result, operational data often remain “dark” –untouched, underutilized or forgotten.

What if we could attach those weird technical names to a metadata model (like a hierarchy)? That’s exactly what the PI System does: Tag names are attached to real-world assets such as transformers, pumps & reactors. You can then navigate the tremendous amount of data through a business view and you can also create asset templates for easy system configuration. Each template can not only contain standards such as calculations, units of measure & other useful stuff (read this case study for a nice example). In effect, working with the data has suddenly become a whole lot easier. Comparing one pump with another is possible just like standardizing the sensor data models across equal assets. This is very powerful stuff in a world that drowns in data but is starving for information.

Sensor data context

Notice the difference: The right hand side makes sense. The left hand side is simply confusing.

Name those events

Making sense of big data requires automated structuring of it. This is especially true for sensor data. In an industrial environment, we are always interested in analyzing specific events such as batch durations, start-ups, downtimes, etc.. These periods of time contain stories and insights that help you to improve processes. But they are notoriously difficult to find and compare when left unstructured. The OSIsoft PI System automatically bookmarking these events. You can then easily compare various batches or simply analyze what led to a downtime. This is really powerful stuff.

OSIsoft PI Event Frames

The last mile

Now we have captured, archived and prepard that sensor data. But data is only useful if you really use it. That requires the timely and effective delivery to users and business applications. Rest assured that the OSIsoft PI System knows how to do that as well. It starts with real-time visualization clients, it includes a powerful SDK and also a really neat BIG Data integration tool. Discussing this in detail would be too much for this post, however.

PI Coresight

Big Data & Industry 4.0

To summarize this longer than usual post: The OSIsoft PI System is your best friend when it comes to managing sensor data. Relational databases are not made for this type of data.

Without an appropriate data infrastructure, Industry 4.0/ Digitalization efforts can quickly come to a grinding and frustrating halt. Does it require a lot get this up and running? No. Installations are usually fairly quick (we are taking days not weeks) and the hardware requirements are also nothing to worry about (it runs on my laptop).

As always, thanks for reading and sharing!

Industry 4.0 and the sensor data analytics problem

That sensor data problem

A few weeks ago, I met with a number of IT consultants who had been hired to provide data science knowledge for an Industry 4.0 project at a large German industrial company. The day I saw them they looked frazzled and frustrated. At the beginning of our meeting they spoke about the source of their frustration: ‘Grabbing a bunch of sensor data’ from a turbine had turned out to be a pretty daunting task. It had looked so simple on the surface. But it wasn’t.

Industrial time series data

Data hungry Industry 4.0

In my last blog post, I looked at the Industry 4.0 movement. It’s an exciting and worthy cause but it requires a ton of data if executed well. Sensor data (aka industrial time-series data) from various assets and control systems is key. But acquiring this type of data, processing it in real-time, archiving and managing it for further analysis turns out to be extremely problematic if you use the wrong tools. So, what’s so difficult? Here are the common problems people encounter.

1. The asset jungle

When we look at a typical industrial environment such as a packaging line, a transmission network or a chemical plant, we will find a plethora of equipment from different manufacturers, assets of different ages (it’s not unusual for industrial equipment to operate for decades), control and automation systems from different vendors (E.g. Rockwell, Emerson, Siemens, etc.). To make things worse, there is also a multitude of different communication standards and protocols such as OPC DA, IEEE C37.118 & Modbus just to name a few. As a result, it’s not easy to communicate with industrial equipment. There is no single standard. Instead, you typically need to develop and operate a multitude of interfaces. Just ‘grabbing’ a bunch of sensor data suddenly turned difficult. There is no one-size fits all.
 Asset Jungle

2. Speedy data

Once you have started communicating with an asset, you will find that its data can be quite fast. It’s not unusual for an asset to send data in the milisecond or second range. Capturing and processing something this fast requires special technology. Also, we do want to capture data at this resolution as it could potentially provide critical insights. And how about analyzing and monitoring that data in real-time? This is often a requirement for Industry 4.0 scenarios.
high speed data

High speed data vs slow: what could you be missing?

3. Big data volumes

Not only is data super fast, it’s also big. Modern assets can easily send around 500 -10000 distinct signals or tags (e.g. bearing vibration, temperature, etc.). A modern wind turbine has 1000 plus important signals. A complex packaging machine  for the pharmaceutical industry captures 300-1000 signals.
The sheer volume creates a number of problems:
  • Storage: Think about the volume of data that is being generated in a day, week or month: 10k signals per second can easily grow to a significant amount of data. Storing this in a relational database can be very tricky and slow. You are looking at massive amounts of TB.
  • Context: Sensors usually have a signal/ tag name that can be quite confusing. The local engineer might know the context, but what about the data scientist? How would she know that tag AC03.Air_Flow is related to turbine A in Italy and not pump B in Denmark?
sensor structure

Signal/ tag names can be extremely confusing

4. Tricky time-series

Last but not least, managing and analyzing industrial time series data is not that easy. Performing time-based calculations such as averages require specific functions that are not readily available in common tools such as Hadoop, SQL Server and Excel.  To make things worse, units of measure are also tricky when it comes to industrial data. This can especially be a huge problems when you work across different regions (think about degree C vs F). You really have to make sure that you are comparing apples to apples.

5. Analytics ready data

An often overlooked problem is that sensor data is not necessarily clean. Data is usually sent at uneven points in time. There might be a sensor failure or a value just doesn’t change very often. As a result you always end up with unevenly spaced data which is really hard to manage in a relational database (just google the problem). Data scientists usually require equidistant data for their analytics projects. Getting the data in the right shape can be immensely time-consuming (think about interpolations etc.).
Uneven Time-Series data

Unevenly spaced sensor data

That tricky sensor data

To summarize this: ‘grabbing a bunch of sensor data’ is anything but easy. Industry 4.0 initiatives require a solid data foundation as discussed in my last post. Without it you run the risk of wasting a ton of time & resources. Also, chances are that the results will be disappointing. Imagine a data scientist attempting to train a predictive maintenance model with just a small set of noisy and incomplete data.
To do this properly, you need special tools such as the OSIsoft PI System. The PI System provides a unique real-time data infrastructure for all your Industry 4.0 projects. In my next post, I will describe how this works.
What are your experiences with industrial time-series data?